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PET Resin

PET Resin
Preform molding
Preform design
Preform Animation
Blow Molding
Bottle Design
Reheat stretch blow machinery
Single stage machinery
One stage vs. two stage machinery


PET (or sometimes PETE) is the standard abbreviation for poly(ethylene terephthalate), a polyester material which is used for film, fiber, and injection molded parts, as well as blow-molded bottles and jars. Special grades are offered with the required properties for the different applications. PET is supplied by the resin manufacturers in the form of small pellets, each about 1/20th of a gram.

PET is a polymer, which means that its molecules consist of long chains of repeating units. The structure of the repeating unit of PET is shown here.

In the bottle industry, the length of the PET chains is usually described by the resin IV (Intrinsic Viscosity). Bottle grades have IV values of about 0.65 to 0.85 dL/g, or about 100-155 repeating units per chain.

Most bottle grades of PET are copolymers, which means that a few percent of a modifier has been incorporated into the polymer chain. Copolymers are easier to injection mold because the crystallinity behavior is improved.

A remarkable transformation takes place when injection molded PET is stretched at the right temperatures and to the right extent. The long chains undergo strain-hardening and strain-induced crystallization, which gives the properly-made PET bottle exceptional clarity, resistance to internal pressure, uniform wall thickness, toughness, and a host of other features. To achieve these useful properties, however, care must be taken in choosing the right grade of resin, as well as the right preform and bottle designs, and good molding practices.

Some grades of PET have other modifications to improve the bottle barrier properties, the reheat characteristics (for two-stage systems), or the generation of AA (acetaldehyde).